Upgrading a Red Hat or CentOS system isn’t difficult. Just type yum update, it’s easy. So easy, in fact, that is quite possible to upgrade a system you didn’t intend to, or to upgrade a system further than was wanted, which is the subject of this post.
Yum update, used on a system which has not been updated for months or years, will cause hundreds of packages to be upgraded. It will also result in a point release upgrade. For example, a system running Red Hat/CentOS 6.2 might change to 6.5 after the update, or even to 6.7 or 6.9. Continue reading →
“Dirty Cow” is the common name given to Linux vulnerability CVE-2016-5195. It is a “privilege escalation” that allows a non-root user to gain root access on a system. An attacker must have system access first, as a normal user. Then they use the bug to obtain root rights. It is dangerous and should be patched.
The Linux kernel itself was fixed in October 2016. Since then, Linux vendors have all released patches. Many Internet articles suggest addressing the bug by doing a general system update. While that might be fine for a test machine or Linux desktop, it isn’t ideal for a production server. This article describes how to fix the bug in the least invasive way possible – by updating the kernel only. Continue reading →
*UPDATED January 2018 to add MySQL procedure*. The Raspberry Pi’s low power consumption makes it well suited to the role of always-on web server. This post describes how to install Nextcloud onto the Pi. Nextcloud is an open source software package providing remote file sharing services, similar to Dropbox. But with Nextcloud, you retain ownership, security and control of the shared data. Nextcloud works well on a Pi 2 and Pi 3 but will run very slowly on a Pi 1.
Note: This is a detailed, step-by-step procedure. If you would rather do the installation automatically, please see my recent article Automatic Nextcloud Installation on Raspberry Pi, which explains how to install Nextcloud with 3 commands. It is the quickest and easiest way to get Nextcloud running. Both procedures achieve the same overall result, however. Continue reading →
WordPress is a popular blogging platform and content management system. This brief article explains how to upgrade WordPress on the Linux command line. A message on your Dashboard says that a new release is available ? Proceed as follows. Continue reading →
*UPDATED* December 2017. The ESXi embedded host client is a web application served direct from an ESXi server that allows basic management of virtual infrastructure. It is somewhat similar in appearance to Vsphere. Vmware has released it as a “fling“, which can be easily added to an existing ESXi server as follows. NB it is recommended to try this in a lab environment rather than a production machine. Continue reading →
The Linux packet filter provides an easy way to protect against unwanted network intrusions. Often referred to simply as “iptables“, it is a basic firewall built into the Linux kernel. Iptables is most useful, perhaps, on those servers most susceptible to attack, such as LAMP systems, content management servers and blogging platforms, especially where they are Internet facing.
Ipset is a fairly recent addition to Linux, having been introduced into kernel version 2.6.32. This means it is supported in Debian 7 and 8, as well as Red Hat 6 onwards. In short, ipset allows a large number of IP addresses to be blocked in an efficient way, as demonstrated below. Continue reading →
Linux disk partition names such as /dev/sda1, /dev/sda2 are not as fixed as they once were. From time to time they can change. Perhaps due to a hardware change or kernel upgrade, or sometimes for no apparent reason. If and when this happens on your system, things can break. In this case, an encrypted swap partition had been configured as “/dev/sda6”, and failed to activate following a change in the the /dev/sdXX partition names. This article describes the symptoms and a fix.
The article also discusses a bug affecting Ubuntu 14.04 based distributions, which can make it more difficult to recover an encrypted swap configuration broken by a device name change. Continue reading →
Debian 8 (jessie) was released in April 2015, ten months ago at the time of writing. Some sites will have upgraded by now, and others might be considering the move. This article provides a list of issues encountered after upgrading several servers from Debian 7 (wheezy) to Debian 8. These are system administration issues in the most part, though some might also be of interest to application support staff. Continue reading →